Database management is the method for managing data that supports the business operations of an organization. It involves storing data, distributing it to users and application programs, modifying it as necessary as well as monitoring changes to the data and preventing it from becoming damaged due to unexpected failure. It is part of the entire informational infrastructure of a business that aids in decision-making and corporate growth as well as compliance with laws such as the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

The first database systems were invented in the 1960s by Charles Bachman, IBM and others. They developed into information management systems (IMS) which made it possible to store and retrieve large amounts of data for a variety of uses, from calculating inventory to supporting complex financial accounting and human resources functions.

A database is a collection of tables which organize data in accordance with the specific scheme, for example one-to-many relationships. It uses primary key to identify records and allow cross-references between tables. Each table contains a set of fields, referred to as attributes, which provide information about data entities. Relational models, which were developed by E. F. “TedCodd Codd in the 1970s at IBM and IBM, are among the most popular database type currently. This model is based upon normalizing the data, making it easier to use. It is also easier to update data because it doesn’t require the modification of various databases.

Most DBMSs can accommodate multiple types of databases through different levels of internal and external organization. The internal level is concerned with cost, scalability and other operational concerns including the layout of the physical storage. The external level determines how the database appears in user interfaces and other applications. It could include a mix of various external views (based on the various data models) and may include virtual tables that are computed from data that is generic to enhance performance.